Comment identifier un liner us M-1 datant de la seconde guerre mondiale

How to identify an M-1 liner?

Image how to identify an M1 liner?

The identification of the Liner Helmet Steel M-1

It all started in 1941 when the Quartermaster adopted a totally different combat helmet from the previous one. The latter consisted of a heavy helmet, or shell, and a removable inner helmet. This inner part bears the following official name: Liner Helmet Steel M-1.

Its main advantage was that it could be worn alone, or with its shell. This allowed soldiers to have a headgear without the inconvenience of a shell weighing more than a kilo on the head when it was not necessary.

Little throwback

During the year 1940, the American army which still used the helmet “M-1917A1″ close to the British model, reported a helmet unsuitable for combat. It was necessary to develop a helmet that covered the entire head and that did not obstruct the vision of the soldiers.

This heavy development task was entrusted to Colonel HG Sydenham who drew inspiration from various helmets present in the civilian world. His attention fell on the American Football helmets of the time, and he decided to create a light helmet with lines that would fit into a protective steel shell. It was the Riddell company that owned the patent on this type of helmet, so the production of the prototype called "TS-3" was entrusted to it.

The Liner Fiber Helmet M-1

In order to launch the mass production of the new heavy helmet and its under helmet, and after having bought the patent from the firm Riddell, the American army decided to launch a call for tenders.

Hawley Helmet
Marine Corp Tropical Pith Helmet
The company Mc Cord Radiator & Manufacturing Co which already produced the M-1917A1 helmet for the army decided to join forces with the firm Hawley Products Company in order to propose the production of under helmets.

Hawley Products Company, which manufactured tropical fiber helmets for the army, proposed a compressed fiber base under-helmet.

This prototype was quickly approved by the army and the first series of nearly 1,000,000 under helmets was launched in 1941. In total, it was not far from 4,000,000 copies that left the Mc Cord- Hawley and its subcontractor, General Fiber Company. The design of this model was stopped in 1942, with the introduction of a new plastic model.

Orders Fulfilled by the Chicago Quartermaster Depot
Contract number Date of the contract
W-199-qm-1*488 December 1941
W-199-qm-24436 March 1942
W-199-qm-37570 August 1942

1st type in compressed cardboard

The under-helmet produced by McCord-Hawley, was in its design very close to what was already in place for the development of the tropical helmet.

Liner Hawley
US M1 “Hawley” Liner
The process was accomplished by gluing together two parts of compressed cardboard fibers, themselves soaked in an impermeable substance, and covered with fabric. The suspension structure initially developed by the firm Riddell Co, was made with the assembly of white rayon fabrics, fixed using riveted rectangular support plates.

The under-helmet's brown leather chinstrap was also riveted directly to the inner sides, making it impossible to remove if needed.

Hawley liner chinstrap rivet
Leather chinstrap rivet
A canvas strap is attached around the entire circumference of the helmet with 6 rectangular brass rivets. Three straps fixed with the band and its rivets form three "V", the ends of which are connected in the center by a cotton lace, so that the depth of the under-helmet can be adjusted.

The canvas headband is equipped with a second leather headband fixed with six press studs. On this first model of under helmet, the headband was not adjustable and was available in 13 different sizes.

2nd type in compressed cardboard


The second model in compressed cardboard corresponds to a production between March 1942 and August 1942. The first type of counter-rivets of rectangular shape was replaced by steel models in the shape of “A”.

The straps that make up the inside of the helmet were also changed, made of cotton color OD#3. The inner strap was also changed to allow adjustment of the head circumference. This second type made of compressed cardboard will mark the end of the manufacture of under-helmets with this material considered far too fragile.

Liner Helmet M-1 New Type


Type 2 compressed fiber liner
Interior view of the Liner Helmet M-1 New Type​
It is from November 1942 that the Liner Fiber Helmet M1 will be judged as Limited Standard (stop production and distribution until end of stocks).

It was at this time that the army launched a new call for tenders in order to manufacture more resistant and more quickly produced under-helmets. An order will be launched with the production of nearly 600 high-pressure molded copies by three companies specializing in civilian helmets (Inland Division, Mine Safety Appliances and Westinghouse Electric Company).

The QMC (Quartermaster Corps), validated the project in February 1942 under the new name “Liner Helmet, M-1 New Type”. With the war raging, orders will be placed with three companies (Inland Division, Mine Safety Appliances and Westinghouse Electric Company).

On the other hand, the firms Saint-Clair Rubber Company and BF Goodrich Company – Hool Rubber Division, proposed a model molded at low pressure.

Between July 1942 and August 1945, the Westinghouse firm manufactured no less than 5 variants of high-pressure under-helmets mixing the different internal suspension systems and materials.
1st Type Variant 1st Type 2nd type 3rd Kind 4th type
Rectangular counter-rivets White metal "A" shaped backing rivets White metal "A" shaped backing rivets "A"-shaped counter-rivets in white metal painted in OD3 Bronzed metal "A" shaped counter-rivets
Suspension in white rayon fabric Suspension in white rayon fabric HBT canvas suspension in OD3 color HBT canvas suspension in OD3 color HBT canvas suspension in OD3 color
Fixed Chinstrap Removable chinstrap Removable chinstrap Removable chinstrap Removable chinstrap
Non-adjustable headband fixed by press stud Non-adjustable headband fixed by press stud Adjustable headband Adjustable headband Adjustable headband

Hallmarks

To know the manufacturer who produced your under-helmet, just look at the bottom, under the cord that connects the "V" straps. You should see some sort of stamped logo. Compare it to the different manufacturers referenced here to identify the firm.

Hood Rubber Co logo.
Hood Rubber Co​
Liner Helmet M-1 New Type Low Pressure​

Saint Clair Rubber Co logo.
Saint Clair Rubber Co​
Liner Helmet M-1 New Type Low Pressure​

Westinghouse Mfg Co logo.
Westinghouse Mfg Co.
Liner Helmet M-1 New Type High Pressure​

Seaman Paper Co Logo
Seaman Paper Co
Liner Helmet M-1 New Type High Pressure​

Capac Mfg Co​ logo.
Capac Mfg Co​.
Liner Helmet M-1 New Type High Pressure​

Firestone Tire Co.​
Firestone Tire Co.​
Liner Helmet M-1 New Type High Pressure​

Mine Safety Appliances Logo​
Mine Safety Appliances​
Liner Helmet M-1 New Type High Pressure​

International Molded Plastics logo
International Molded Plastics Inc.
Liner Helmet M-1 New Type High Pressure​

Logo Inland Mfg Div
Inland Mfg Div
Liner Helmet M-1 New Type High Pressure​

High Pressure Liners

Number of units produced by high pressure helmet manufacturers between 1942 and 1945

Westinghouse Electric and Mfg Co.
23,000,000
Firestone Tire and Rubber Co.
7,500,000
Capac Manufacturing Co
4,300,000
Mine Safety Appliances Co
3,500,000
Seaman Paper Co
3,000,000
International Molded Plastics Inc.
2,100,000
Inland Division of General Motor
1,900,000

Counter Rivets

Against rivet painted production 1943-1944
A final way to best identify and date your helmet liner is to look at your counter rivets. These metal parts say a lot about the date of manufacture. Depending on their shape, the material used, as well as the paint applied, you could estimate the production date of your liner.

You will find below a table that references the different elements related to the date of manufacture of your under-helmet.
1942 1942-1943 1943-1944 1944-1945
Rectangular in unpainted metal "A" shape in unpainted white metal "A" shape painted metal OD#3 "A" shape in unpainted bronzed metal

Conclusion


Several elements make it possible to date an under-helmet. Whether it is the materials used to manufacture the bomb, or the various elements that make up the interior and its lines, it is relatively easy to estimate the date of manufacture of the liner. Without forgetting the easily identifiable punch at the bottom, on the inside face.

In view of the manufacturing carried out during the Second World War, there is a good chance that your under-helmet was produced by the Westinghouse firm between 1942 and the end of the conflict. Of nearly 51,000,000 copies, Westinghouse produced no less than 45%, or nearly 23,000,000 of them.

If you are having difficulty dating and identifying your under-helmet, do not hesitate to contact us , we will be happy to help you.
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